Breathing Coordination


Lynn Martin,  Sterling Swann, Joan Wikowski, Steven Flam, 
Laurence A. Caso (media consultant)
About the Practitioners:

When Carl and Reece Stough founded the non-profit institute, The Carl Stough Institute of Breathing Coordination, Inc. in 1965, their goal was to provide research and education in the branch of physiology which deals primarily in the function of the muscles of respiration.  The Stoughs foresaw the worsening conditions of respiratory disease, stress and pollution, and they dedicated efforts to educate the world with a solution: Breathing Coordination relieves dyspnea (breathlessness) associated with respiratory disease and other physiological and psychological conditions.  Breathing Coordination helps to avoid respiratory disorders, as well as assists to maintain health and well-being. The Stough Institute, which has recently closed, was empowered by the State of New York as a charitable organization to provide humane services in the area of health, education and welfare, and to extend the knowledge and practice of Breathing Coordination.  

With all of his heart, Carl believed that, given a chance, the application of Breathing Coordination could improve health in every society throughout the world.  Although he made significant progress, he unfortnately did not live long enough to competely fulfill that dream.  In October 2000, Carl Stough passed away, followed a few months later by his beloved wife and partner, Reece.  These two incredibly insightful and caring individuals shared their discoveries, and thousands of us benefited.  Now they leave an impressive legacy so that others who were taught by Carl may continue his quest.  

A number of practitioners who studied with Carl have incorporated the principles of Breathing Coordination into their work.  A few of them joined efforts to establish this website, which serves as a home base of communication for all those interested in learning more about Breathing Coordination and it's many positive benefits.  Educational materials currently available include the book, Dr. Breath, and A Guide to Breathing Coordination, a a CD/audiotape self-help guide.  Please email us ( for information on pricing and how to order. 


Lynn Martin

As a member of the Stough Institute Board of Directors, Lynn Martin assisted with educational outreach projects from 1990 until the close of the Institute.  She has taught Principles of Breathing Coordination, functional anatomy, Ideokinesis, and therapeutic exercise in New York City for more than 20 years.  Lynn has presented the Principles of Breathing Coordination at New York University, the Laban-Bartenieff Institute of Movement Studies, the Westchester Conservatory of Music, the National Association of Teachers of Singing and the Alvin Ailey American Dance Center. 

A summa cum laude graduate of Fordham University, Lynn began Breathing Coordination studies with Carl Stough in 1976.  She has also studied functional anatomy and Ideokinesis with Irene Dowd and Dr. Drid Williams; and voice with Conrad L. Osborne.  Encouraged by her progress in Breathing Coordination, Lynn joined the St. Cecilia Chorus in 1980, with whom she has performed much of the great choral-orchestral repertoire at Carnegie Hall and Lincoln Center. 

For more information about Lynn and her teaching practice of the Principles of Breathing Coordination, please visit: 

Sterling Swann

Sterling Swann graduated with honors from Vassar College in 1974 and received post-graduate training at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts (LAMDA). Having had asthma as a child, he was drawn to the study of Breathing Coordination in 1979.  In 1983, Sterling was certified as an Alexander Technique Instructor and opened his practice in New York City.  

From 1990-95, he was on the staff of the Gramercy Park Sports Medicine, and since 1991 has taught at Sarah Lawrence College.  His course, Breathing Coordination for the Performer, draws exclusively on Stough Institute teaching materials.  

For more information, contact Sterling Swann at 

Joan Witkowski

Joan Witkowski has maintained a private practice in New York City since 1973.  She is a Certified Muscular Therapist in The Benjamin Technique and a licensed massage therapist.  She is also trained in Cranio-Sacral Therapy.  She began studying with Carl Stough in 1977 and employs the Principles of Breathing Coordination in her work with clients.  She has taught Breathing Coordination at the Learning Annex, and at the Peace Theological Seminary's Doctorate program in both Los Angeles and New York City. 

Joan has a B.A. in Literature and Drama from Marymount Manhattan College and recently completed a Masters of Theology program.  

Steven Flam

Steven Flam has a practice in New York City specializing in educating singers on all levels to achieve their maximum level of performance through the application of Breathing Coordination principles.  He is currently referred to and used as a resource by voice teachers internationally and artists management in New York City. 

He is also participating in a collaboration with Atarah Hazzan, principal artist with the Metropolitan Opera, and the only artist with whom Carl Stough traveled internationally for the purpose of applying the principles of Breathing Coordination directly to performance on the operatic stage.  In this collaboration. Steven and Atarah work together with the singer to integrate the habits of Breathing Coordination directly into the singing experience.  To learn more about their work, click on 

Steven Flam began his studies in Breathing Coordination with Carl Stough in 1977.  Steven has also studied Anatomy and Physiology, Cranio-Sacral Therapy, Strain and Counterstrain, Mensendieck body alignment method, as well as many other healing therapies.  He has a professional singing background and an associates degree from the Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City.  

Laurence A. Caso (media consultant)

Laurence A. Caso is an Emmy-winning producer and former network programming executive for both CBS and the Disney Channel. Mr. Caso’s education includes a bachelor’s degree in radio/television from Syracuse University and a master’s degree from Indiana University. He is the Executive Producer of the Institute’s educational video, Breathing: The Source of Life. Mr. Caso first began to study with Carl Stough in 1982. After serving as Media Consultant the previous four years, he became President of The Stough Institute in October of 2000.

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